Zionism anti-liberal Liberalism. The Case of Muscle Judaism within the context of Antisemitism in the Bourgeois German Society

Cristoph Kasten


In this essay I want to underst and Fin de siècle political Zionism as a symptom of bourgeois German society and as an answer to the failed promise of Jewish emancipation. On the basis of the juridical emancipation in 1871 in the German Reich political Zionism and more specifically Max Nordau ́s muscular Judaism was an ambiguous liberal answer to the failed liberal promise of emancipation. The Zionist selfempowerment was therefore a defensive act against anti-Semitism.

Palabras clave

liberalism; Zionism; Max Nordau; Muscle Judaism; anti-Semitism; Critical Theory; Jewish emancipation

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Copyright (c) 2016 Cristoph Kasten

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Constelaciones. Revista de Teoría Crítica
ISSN 2172-9506